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Programme :
Based on “WORKING WITH CONFLICT: Skills and Strategies for Action”, published by Responding to Conflict Agency, Zed Books & RTC 2000.


1. Understanding conflict: Towards a Conceptual framework

  • Making sense of conflict
    (Perceptions, Conflict and violence)
  • Addressing conflict
    (No conflict, Latent conflict, Open conflict, Surface conflict, Intensifying conflict, Escalating conflict, Suppressing conflict)
  • Differing approaches: to manage, resolve or transform conflict
    (Conflict prevention, Conflict settlement, Conflict management, Conflict resolution, Conflict transformation)
  • Theories about the causes of conflict
    (Community relations theory, Principled negotiation theory, Human needs theory, Identity theory, Intercultural miscommunication theory, Conflict transformation theory)
  • Violence is more than behaviour: it also involves context and attitudes
    (Violence as context or structure, attitudes and values in relation to violence)
  • Violence and non violence as ways of bringing about change
    (Coercive force, Total non violence, active non violence)
  • Peace as a process
    (Peace-making, Peace-keeping, Peace-building)

2. Tools for Conflict Analysis

  • Stages of conflict
    (Pre-conflict, Confrontation, Crisis, Outcome, Post-conflict)
  • Timelines
    (Events, Dates)
  • Conflict mapping
    (Parties, Relationships)
  • The ABC triangle
  • The Onion
  • The Conflict Tree
    (Core problem, Causes, Effects)
  • Force-field analysis
    (Positive and negatives forces)
  • Pillars
    (causes of instability)
  • The Pyramid
    (Stake-holders, Grass roots, middle and top levels)

3. Critical Issues

  • Power
    (Power through relationships, Power of veto, Hard and soft power, Sources of power, Power and accountability)
  • Culture
    (Culture as a factor of conflict, Culture as a resource for peace-building, Culture, communication and disagreement, Human rights and culture, Religion and culture)
  • Identity
    (Identity and conflict, Types of collective identity)
  • Gender
    (Gender and conflict, Gender and violence)
  • Rights
    (First-, second-, third-generation human rights, Basic rights, Rights and social relations, Rights and conflict)


1. Building Strategies to Address Conflict

  • Visions
    (Building and sharing)
  • Multi-level triangles
    (Key actors within and between levels)
  • Mapping for entry points
    (Blockages, Marginalisation, Structures, Issues)
  • The Grid: ideas for work on conflict
    (Conflict management work, Peace education and training, Mutual understanding work, Support for marginalized groups, Anti-intimidation work, Cultural traditions work, Justice and rights work, Political options work, Sectors, locations and level of work)
  • The Wheel
  • Aid and conflict
  • Mapping the impact of aid and development programmes on conflict
  • The Strategy Circle

2. Influencing Policy

  • The Values Tree: what you stand for
  • Spectrum of strategic options
  • A checklist for NGOs working in areas of conflict
  • Assessing organisational capacity
  • Helping individuals to change


1. Intervening Directly in Conflict

  • Non violence as an approach to conflict intervention
    (Concerns for goals and relationships, Avoiding, Controlling, Compromising, Accommodating, Problem-solving)
  • Preparing for intervention
    (Identifying and changing approaches to conflict, Identifying and reducing prejudice)
  • Awareness-raising and mobilisation for change
    (Lobbying, Campaigning, Non violent direct action)
  • Prevention
    (Preventing escalation)
  • Maintaining a presence
    (Unarmed protection, Monitoring and observing)
  • Enabling a settlement
    (Confidence-building, Facilitating dialogue, Negotiation, Mediation, Arbitration)

2. Addressing the Consequences

  • Post-war reconstruction: combining physical and social aspects
  • Psychological reconstruction: Helping individuals to deal with the past
    (Trauma relief, Psychological debriefing)
  • Social reconstruction: building relationships
    (Truth, Mercy, Justice, Reconciliation, Peace)

3. Working on the Social Fabric

  • Education for peace and justice
  • Promoting participation of people in decision-making
  • Developing global governance



  • Impact assessment
  • Indicators
  • Key issues in evaluations